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Book : The Art of Systems Architecting (1996)

The Art of Systems Architecting

Categories: ArchitectureComplexity

Tags: architecturebookmaierrechtinsystems engineering

Publisher:CRC Press

Author(s):Rechtin, E.R.Maier, M.W.

Published: 1996 • ISBN: 0849378362 • 266 pages • Delivery Format: Hard Copy - Hardback

Available from: Amazon (US)Amazon (DE)Amazon (UK)

Other Versions: 2009

Summary

From the Publisher:

The Art of Systems Architecting is for systems architects, for engineers and managers interested in extending their expertise, and for individuals concerned with creating, building, or using complex systems.

This innovative text addresses problems inherent in creating and building new and complex systems for electronics, computer, software, aerospace, and government purposes.

Content / Structure

Part One Introduction - The Art of Architecting

  • A brief review of classical architecting methods
    • Different methods for different phases of architecting

Ch. 1 Extending the Architecting Paradigm

  • Introduction: the classical architecting paradigm
    • Responding to complexity
    • The high rate of advances in the computer and information services
  • The foundations of modern systems architecting
    • A systems approach
    • A purpose orientation
    • A modelling methodology
    • Ultraquality implementation
    • Certification
    • Insights and heuristics
  • The architecture paradigm summarized
  • The waterfall model of systems acquisition
  • Spirals, increments, and collaborative assembly
  • Summary and conclusions
  • Notes and references

Ch. 2 Heuristic as Tools

  • Introduction: a metaphor
  • Heuristics as abstractions of experience
  • Selecting a personal kit of heuristic tools
  • Using heuristics
  • Heuristics on heuristics
    • Generating useful heuristics
    • Applying heuristics
  • A taxonomy of heuristics
  • New directions
  • Summary
  • Notes and references

Part 2 New Domains, New Insights

Ch. 3 Builder-Architected Systems

  • Introduction: the form-first paradigm
    • Incremental development for an existing customer
    • New markets for existing products
    • New products, new markets
  • Technological substitutions within existing systems
    • Consequences of uncertainty of end purpose
  • Reducing the risks of uncertainty of end purpose
    • Risk management by intermediate goals
  • The "what next" quandry
    • Controlling the critical features of the architecture
    • Abandonment of an obsolete architecture
  • Creating innovative teams
  • Architecting "revolutionary" systems
  • Systems architecting and basic research
  • Heuristics for architecting technology-driven systems
    • General
    • Specialized
  • Summary
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 4 Manufacturing Systems

  • Introduction: the manufacturing system
  • Architectural innovations in manufacturing
    • Ultraquality systems
    • Dynamic manufacturing systems
      • Intersecting waterfalls
      • The spiral-to-circle model
      • Concurrent engineering
      • Feedback systems
      • Lean production
      • Flexible manufacturing
  • heuristics for architecting manufacturing systems
  • In Conclusion
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 5 Social Systems

  • Introduction: defining sociotechnical systems
    • Public participation
  • The foundations of sociotechnical systems architecting
    • The separation of client and user
    • Socioeconomic insights
  • The interaction between the public and private sectors
  • Facts vs perceptions: an added tension
  • Heuristics for social systems
  • In conclusion
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 6 Software Systems

  • Introduction: The status of software architecting
  • Software as a system component
    • Software for modern systems
    • Systems, software, and process models
      • Waterfalls for software?
      • Spirals for software?
      • Integration: spirals and circles
    • The problem of hierarchy
      • Object-orientation
      • Layered design
      • Large, autonomous components
      • Reconciling the hierarchies
    • The role of architecture in software-centred systems
      • Programming languages, models, and expressions
      • Architectures, "unifying" models, and visions
    • Directions in software architecting
      • Architectural styles
      • Architecture through composition
    • Heuristics and guidelines in software
    • Exercises
    • Notes and references

Ch. 7 Collaborative Systems

  • Introduction: collaboration as a category
  • Collaborative system examples
    • The Internet
    • Intelligent transportation systems
    • Joint air defense systems
  • Analogies for architecting collaborative systems
  • Collaborative system heuristics
    • Stable intermediate forms
    • Policy triage
    • Leverage at the interfaces
    • Ensuring cooperation
  • Variations on the collaborative theme
  • Misclassification
  • Standards and collaborative systems
  • Conclusions
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Exercise to Close Part Two

Part Three Models and Modeling

  • Introduction to part Three
    • A civil architecture analogy
    • Guide to Part Three

Ch. 8 Design Progression in System Architecting

  • Introduction: roles, views and models
  • Roles of models
  • Models, viewpoints, and views
  • Classification of models by view
    • Note to the reader
    • Objectives and purpose models
    • Models of form
      • Scale models
      • Block diagrams
    • Behavioral (functional) models
      • Threads and scenarios
      • Data and event flow networks
      • Mathematical systems theory
      • Autonomous agent, chaotic systems
      • Public choice and behavior models
    • Performance models
      • Formal methods
    • Data models
    • Managerial models
  • Examples of interated models
  • Summary
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 9 Integrated Modeling Methodologies

  • Introduction: architecting process components
  • Design progression
    • Introduction by examples
    • Design as the evolution of models
    • Evaluation criteria and heuristic refinement
    • Progressoion of emphasis
    • Concurrent progressions
    • Episodic nature
  • Design concepts for systems architecture
    • Historical approaches to architecting
    • Specialized and formalized heuristics
    • Scoping, aggregation, partitioning, and certification
      • Scoping
      • Aggregation and partitioning
      • Certification
    • Certainty, rationality, and choice
    • Stopping or progressing?
  • Architecture and design principles
    • Architecture and patterns
  • Conclusions
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 10 Integrated Modeling Methodologies

  • Introduction
  • General integrated models
    • Hatley/Pirbhai - computer-based reactive systems
    • Example: microsatellite imaging system
    • Quantitative QFD (QFD) - performance-driven systems
  • Integrated modeling and software
    • Structured analysis and design
    • ADARTS
    • OMT
    • UML
    • Performance integration: scheduling
  • Integrated models for manufacturing systems
  • Integrated models for sociotechnical systems
  • Conclusions
  • Exercises
  • Notes and references

Ch. 11 Architecture Frameworks

  • Introduction
  • Defining an architecture framework
    • Goals of the framework
    • Understanding "architectural level"
    • Organization of an architectural description framework
  • Current architecture frameworks
    • U.S. DoD C4ISR
      • Summary information
      • Operational view
      • System view
      • Technical view
      • Evaluation of the C4ISR framework
    • ISO RM-ODP
    • Proprietary and semi-open information technology standards
    • IEEE P1471
      • P1471 concepts
      • P1471 nornative requirements
    • Research directions
    • Conclusions
    • Notes and references

Part 4 The Systems Architecting Profession

Chapter 12 The Political process and Systems Architecting

  • Introduction: the political challenge
  • Politics as a design factor
  • The first skill to muster
  • Heuristics in the political process: "the facts of life"
  • A few more skills to master
  • Conclusion

Chapter 13 The Professionalization of Systems Architecting

  • Introduction
  • The profession of systems engineering
  • Systems architecting and systems standards
    • The origins of systems standards
      • The ballistic missile program of the 1950s
    • The beginning of a new era of standards
      • EIA/IS 632, an architectural perspective
    • Commercial standards
      • IEEE 1220. an architectural perspective
    • Company standards
    • A summary of standards developments, 1950-1995
  • Systems architecting graduate education
    • Systems engineering universities and systems architecting
    • Curriculum design
    • Advanced study in systems architecting
  • Professional societies and publications
  • Conclusion: an assessment of the profession
  • Notes and references

Appendices

Appendix A Heuristics for Systems-Level Architecting

Appendix B: Reference Tests Suggested for Institutional Libraries

Appendix C: On Defining Architecture and Other Terms

Glossary

Index by Author

Index by Subject

Copyright 1996 by CRC Press LLC

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